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2016 ASLA 分析及规划类荣誉奖:普吉特海湾区域开放空间策略 / 华盛顿大学绿色未来实验室

时间:2017/4/11 16:02:00  来源:中国景观网   编辑:fangfang   浏览:575次
普吉特海湾中心地区由大西雅图都市圈内的八个主要流域与四个郡组成,由景观建筑师与规划师联合领导的区域性开放空间战略将整合现下不成体系的各种活动,维护并进一步提升普吉特海湾中心地区的生态、经济、文化活力。

“这是一个非常重要的切入点,水体与土地之间的空间已日渐成为景观设计需要面对的主要问题之一。设计团队的讲述明确而极具可行性,而其具体实施计划也同样让人影响深刻。”
-2016年评审委员会

“It took on an important topic that landscape architecture is increasingly going to deal with—the space between land and water. The way they told their story was very approachable and clear, and coming up with a clear plan was equally impressive.”
– 2016 Awards Jury

项目陈述 PROJECT STATEMENT

每小时便会有7个人选择普吉特海湾作为他们新家的落户之地。爆炸式的人口增长正影响着当地的生态多样性、社会公平与人类健康。面对气候变化与不均衡的区域经济发展,协调数百个管辖机关与非营利性组织以共同保护、提升区域内现有开放空间的品质,并打造一个面向所有人开放的区域性开放空间网络的行动已迫在眉睫。区域性开放空间战略(ROSS)便是从多尺度规划层面上的针对性解决方案。项目召集当地政府与非营利性组织领导人联手策划了一个连接城市与郊野的强健绿色基础设施系统,分析了区域内现有开放空间提供的生态系统服务,并在区域与流域尺度上挑选出应优先发展,能够带来多元利益的项目。此外,ROSS团队还确立了一套规划工具以提升开放空间的价值,并激励政府、金融和宣传机构朝着最终的区域愿景努力。

Seven people per hour make the Puget Sound region their new home, with this population explosion impacting biodiversity, social equity, and human health. Compounded by the challenges of climate change and uneven economic development, it has become urgent to coordinate efforts across the hundreds of jurisdictions and non-profit organizations to protect, enhance and connect a regional open space network accessible to all. The Regional Open Space Strategy (ROSS) is a multi-scale planning effort established to address this need. The project 1) brought together local governmental and NGO leaders to envision a robust, connected green infrastructure system from urban to wild; 2) analyzed the ecosystem services provided by the region’s open spaces; and 3) identified priority, multi-benefit projects at watershed and regional scales. The ROSS team also developed planning tools to account for the value of open space and catalyzed governance, finance and advocacy mechanisms to implement the regional vision.

 

▲ 通过开放空间系统分析和规划应对区域挑战 Addressing Regional Challenges through Open Space Analysis and Planning
正在快速增长与发展的普吉特海湾地区迫切需要通过建立一个强健的绿色基础设施体系来解决生物多样性,人类健康,社会公平,经济发展,气候变化的区域挑战。
Accelerated growth and development in the Puget Sound region has cumulated in an urgent need to address the critical regional challenges of biodiversity, human health, social equity, economic development, and climate change, possible through a robust green infrastructure system.Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

项目说明 PROJECT NARRATIVE

背景

普吉特海湾中心地区由大西雅图都市圈内的八个主要流域与四个郡组成,西至喀斯喀特山脉,东临普吉特湾海岸。当下及预计中的人口增长率将给区域内的自然资源造成极大的压力,严重威胁到推动区域经济发展,提升居民生活质量的独特环境资产。虽然人们为保护、修复普吉特海湾景观与水资源做出了无数尝试,然而官方与非官方组织总是各自为政,未能提供足够的资金以在有效规模上应对各种问题。尽管对环境的保护与修复能在一定程度上减缓气候变化、生态多样性流失以及卫生公平性的问题,但如今的经济 – 自然资源决策机制未能完全展现自然资源的价值,导致对开放空间的投资长期处于匮乏与被忽视的状态。

项目概述与目标

由景观建筑师与规划师联合领导的区域性开放空间战略将整合现下不成体系的各种活动,维护并进一步提升普吉特海湾中心地区的生态、经济、文化活力。基于这个共同构思、综合完整的愿景与协作系统,规划师和决策者将能够根据具体措施在区域尺度上的重要性与优先性,将更多的资金投入至区域基础设施的建设,更高效地利用现有资源。而开放空间价值的全面展现也将挖掘出更具潜力的多元利益项目,并为景观、规划和投资方提供信息。

ROSS团队确立了四个主要目标,以保证最终愿景的实现:
1. 策划一个强健的区域连续开放空间网络,并从中挑选出优先发展项目;
2. 加强区域发展的均衡;
3. 拓展并运用分析工具测定并推广开放空间的价值;
4. 培养一个包括私人、非营利组织与政府等利益相关方在内的区域宣传、管理组织。

在过去的五年中,ROSS团队拓展了“开放空间”的定义,将休闲空间与步道、健康生态系统、诸如农场和森林等生产性景观、社区公园以及其余开放休闲空间一并归入到概念之中。项目从“初步综合战略”层面开展,邀请了百余名利益相关方的代表来讲述他们对区域绿色基础设施系统的要求,并为建立这个系统制定了流程路线图。该方案建议与普吉特海湾各个流域的社区进行合作,同时开发工具和流程来衡量以及强调区域之间的联系,并将愿景与优先发展项目整合到区域整体之中。初步战略意图打造一个能够优化开放空间利益的完整空间愿景,应用景观生态学和生态系统服务的概念来指导决策,以及从城市到乡野的范畴来提升开放空间的保护价值。

评估区域景观以应对区域挑战

ROSS团队以及其合伙人认为开放空间需要解决生物多样性保护,气候变化,社会公平性,健康以及经济活力5个方面的挑战。ROSS团队召集专家工作组来开展绿色文件,用以记录开放空间在应对每一个区域挑战中发挥的作用,并发布于项目网站上。团队根据传统生态系统服务的准则,将开放空间服务分为16项,以提供评价将社会利益与文化利益相结合更好结合的标准。在这个框架的指导下,团队与经济学家合作,量化4郡区现有开放空间的经济价值。量化模型显示,开放空间的估值近8250亿美元,对经济的贡献达到每年11亿-250亿美元。团队及其合作伙伴创建了一个交互式GIS网络工具原型,用以模拟和传达该地区景观所提供的开放空间服务,包括与解决5个区域挑战相关的内容。这套系统目前正在进行工具的全面建构工作,预计能够在秋天对公众开放,以便为开放空间保护和情境增强和决策制定提供信息。

流域开放空间战略

ROSS团队与当地政府以及顾问团一同制定了三套流域开放空间战略,(简称为WOSSes),用以指导具有针对性的地方性政策,项目和行动,并为总体区域战略的发展提供信息。优先项目是指那些可以要求外部协助与合作的项目,将有助于于跨流域,区域开放空间系统的发展与运作,最大化开放空间价值。虽然三个流域的研究采用了能反映不同需求与能力的不同流程,但每一个流程的分析与制定,都是由当地的顾问和倡导者通过一些列的互动会议和研讨会的探讨确定的。

首先,在普亚勒普白河流域的开放空间战略中,团队通过与当地组建的兴趣社区合作,完成了区域径距缺口,面临危险的农田,洪涝区,城市人口密集区周边的开放空间沙漠以及未纳入保护范围的最高生态完整区的划定。团队提出了三个主要的理念:1 建设一个绿色Y形目标区域为目前尚缺乏服务的社区的农田确保多样性的收益,建立径迹连接,扩张洪泛区域以及提供开放空间。目前每年为区域经济的农业产品部分贡献约700万美元;2 白河走廊的保护侧重于河岸增强,3 创建“大雷尼尔联盟”来提升保护和增加雷尼尔山周边社区与休闲相关的经济活动。

团队在为人口众多的绿色瓦米什流域制定的战略时,采用了一个专家参与程序,通过召开见面会,开设讨论小组以及公众开放日的方式来听取各方意见,建立现有条件、创意和方案的基准。项目的流域咨询小组将流域战略的优先重点定为保证社会公平,制定连接开放空间的综合方法,以及整合雨水规划。在制定Snohomish流域开放空间战略时,团队为GIS系统绘制了大量的数据信息,并确立了生态服务系统热点以为后续规划提供信息。接下来,为了了解潜在合作行动以及天的多重好处,团队与县、州、市政和非营利规划者合作创建以及评估空间情境。

建立区域空间策略

ROSS团队将从流域战略、GIS数据、专家和支持者以及开放空间价值测量中得到的信息叠加,从而从中辨认出四郡辖区内急需保护、修复并接入公众进入途径的关键区域。初步区域空间构想确定了优先处理的行动区域,界定出其中的城市、农业与森林用地范围,并加强道路的连接,增加休闲与社区开放空间,保护与修复栖息地,以及减少洪灾与暴雨灾害带来的影响。利用模拟飞行软件,ROSS团队通过三维视频生动地展示出这些优先处理空间的内在关联,从而展示了初步区域空间构策略中最为关键的组成部分。

治理、资金筹备与实施

而在后期,通过将开放空间的规划交予代表四郡的半政府性质机构-普吉特海湾委员会管理,并确定非营利机构、政府和企业联盟的正式地位,以促进持续的宣传与沟通,完善规划方案,吸引管理资金,培养区域性合作团体保护、提升与管理区域景观质量,区域性开放空间战略的持续发展与实现将得到保证。而其纲领中的多标准分析、规划成果与生态系统/开放空间服务研究和策略工具将辅助这些并行措施的实施。通过扩大景观建筑师的职责范围,区域性开放空间战略项目为各机构与组织间建立巩固联盟打下了坚实的基础,为区域开放空间的保护与品质提升获得了多方面的重视。

“区域性开放空间战略是探讨如何在区域尺度上正确保护资源,并为全国树立模范案例的一个宝贵机会。” 前美国住房和城市发展部副部长Ron Sims说道。

 

▲ 区域休憩开放空间 Regional Open Space Study Area
普吉特海湾中央区包括八大流域和西雅图都市区的四个县,范围囊括从山峰到普吉特海湾海岸线,区域人口预计于2040年达到500万。
The Central Puget Sound region comprises eight major watersheds and four counties in the Greater Seattle Metropolitan Area, stretching from the mountain crests to the shorelines of Puget Sound – and is expected to support 5 million residents by 2040. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

▲ 制定普吉特海湾中央区开放空间战略的远景与价值 Defining Visions and Values of the Central Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy (ROSS)
开放空间战略最初为了奠定长期战略的基础,召集了百余位利益相关者,制定了区域开放空间系统
The ROSS initially convened over 100 stakeholders to lay the groundwork for a long-range strategy, defining a vision for a robust regional open space system that is "diverse, connected, coordinated, resilient, multifunctional, equitably accessible, interdependent, and stewarded.” Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab 

 

▲ 区域性开放空间战略初步综合战略 ROSS Preliminary Comprehensive Strategy
初步战略意图打造一个能够优化开放空间利益的完整空间愿景,应用景观生态学和生态系统服务的概念来指导决策,以及从城市到乡野的范畴来提升开放空间的保护价值。
The Preliminary Strategy called for an integrated spatial vision that measures and optimizes open space benefits, applying landscape ecology and ecosystem services concepts to guide decision-making and promote open space conservation values, from urban to rural to wild. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

ROSS_5

▲ 确定开放空间服务内容 Defining Open Space Services
设计团队在传统生态系统服务的基础上进一步拓展,将文化与社会公平性的效益一并囊括其中,建立起一套开放空间服务框架,以指导农场、森林、城市公园、道路与可持续基础设施的价值测量。
We developed an “Open Space Services” framework – based upon “ecosystem services” but broadened to more responsively incorporate cultural and social equity benefits – to guide measurement of the values provided by farms, forests, urban parks and trails, and sustainable infrastructure. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

▲ 区域开放空间的价值 The Value of the Region’s Open Spaces
规划团队模拟了当前开放空间系统的经济贡献,模型显示4县区的估值近8250亿美元,对经济的贡献达到每年11亿-250亿美元。
The Planning Team modeled the current economic contribution of select Open Space Services, concluding that the 4-county region’s open spaces contribute between $11. 4 and $25.2 billion to the economy annually, and are valued at approximately $825B. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

ROSS_7

▲ 开放空间服务分析 Open Space Services Analysis
通过评估,ROSS团队在考虑“绿色Y”方案的提出时,对如普亚勒普河堤坝等特殊绿色设施的开放空间服务以及投资回报进行了经济分析。
Using the valuation, the ROSS team conducted economic analyses of open space services and return on investment of specific green infrastructure projects that were being considered for the “Green-Y” proposal, such as a levee setback for the Puyallup River. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

ROSS_8

▲ Snohomish流域生态系统情境 Ecosystem Scenarios in the Snohomish Watershed
Snohomish盆地拥有6万英亩森林。由于当地利益相关者对此极为重视,因此团队对Snohomish 流域的开放空间的基于休闲娱乐的经济振兴情境的利益进行了整合和评估。
The Snohomish Basin has 60,000 acres of regionally significant forest land. Based on high interest from local stakeholders, we consolidated and evaluated coordinated recreation-based economic revitalization scenarios for open space benefits in the Snohomish watershed. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

ROSS_9

▲ 绿色瓦米什流域的公平获得 Equitable Access in the Green Duwamish Watershed
在绿色瓦米什流域急需更具包容性和公平性的规划进程。这个流域战略进程关注协调多个管辖区,计划更为公平的获得公园和开放空间。
In the Green-Duwamish watershed, a more inclusive and equitable planning process emerged as the most important need. This watershed strategy process focuses on coordinating across dozens of jurisdictional plans for more equitable access to parks and open spaces. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

▲ 普亚勒普河白河流域开放空间战略:综合建议 Puyallup-White Watershed Open Space Strategy: Synthesized Proposals
“绿色Y”计划的核心是普亚勒普河白河流域三个综合战略之一,它整合了保留剩余农田,提升河流生态功能,建立多区域径迹连接和公平获得公园与开放空间的建议。
The “Green-Y” Core is one of the three integrative strategies from the Puyallup-White WOSS which combines proposals to retain remaining farmlands, improve the river’s ecological functions, connect regional multi-purpose trails and give equitable access to parks and open space.Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

▲ 管理性分析 Regulatory Analyses
为了推动所提出措施的实施,进一步的策划分析将重点集中于在普亚勒普白河流域快速城市化的绿色Y形目标区域保留并提高农业 、森林资源面积所带来的挑战与机遇。
To advance implementation of proposed action items, further planning analysis focused on the regulatory challenges and opportunities associated with maintaining and enhancing forestry and agricultural resource lands in the fast-urbanizing “Green-Y” area of the Puyallup-White watershed. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

▲ 区域性策略与优先发展项目 Regional Strategies and Priority Actions
从流域与区域性尺度出发的ROSS团队通过引入GIS数据、参考规划文件、访问并举办专家研讨会,从规划范围内挑选出急需保护和提升的重点景观空间。计划行动涉及到农业、林业、休闲、社区、路径与栖息地多个方面。
Working between watershed and regional scales, the Team employed GIS data, planning documents, interviews and workshops with experts to identify the most important landscapes to conserve and enhance. Recommended actions address agriculture, forests, recreation, community, trails and habitat. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

▲ 区域愿景的传达 Communicating a Regional Vision
ROSS团队通过视频与三维模型展示绿色基础设施系统如何在区域尺度上应对相互关联的各发展重点。以描述性取代指令式的沟通方式也使得参与规划的各方能够更好地合作。
The ROSS team utilized video and 3-D modelling at the regional level to show how the green infrastructure system can address interconnected priorities. The narrative, rather than prescriptive, approach to a regional vision enabled collaboration between planning efforts. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

▲ 建立生态系统服务规划工具 Ecosystem Service Planning Tool Development
ROSS团队与其合伙人共同创立了一个在线的GIS工具原型,以模拟测定经过修复与提升后的开放空间面对特定区域性问题时的应对能力。全套交互工具将于17年正式发布。
The ROSS team and partners created a prototype online GIS tool to model the capacity of open space conservation and enhancement scenarios to confront identified regional challenges. The completed interactive tool will be available in the coming year. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

 

▲ 区域性管理与资金筹备 Regional Governance and Funding
ROSS team与政府及非政府组织领导人合作建立起组织战略,为绿色基础设施策略的扩张和实施获取资金,通过双方努力实现跨区域开放空间的连接与用地性质的调整。
The ROSS team worked with governmental and NGO leaders to craft an organizational strategy to expand, fund and implement the regional green infrastructure strategy, working in both sectors to coordinate connected open space and land use decisions across jurisdictional boundaries. Photo Credit: University of Washington Green Futures Lab

Context

The Central Puget Sound region is comprised of eight major watersheds and four counties in the Greater Seattle Metropolitan Area, stretching from the crests of the Cascade Mountains to the shorelines of Puget Sound. The current and expected population growth is projected to severely strain the region’s natural resources, threatening the environmental assets that have defined the region and fueled its economic growth and quality of life. While numerous efforts are aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound landscapes and waters, government and non-profit initiatives have been uncoordinated and inadequately funded to confront major challenges at an effective scale. While conservation and enhancement of the region’s landscapes can help to provide resilience to challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss and health equity, current economic and natural resource decision-making processes fail to account for the full value of natural capital, leaving open space investments consistently under-funded and under-prioritized. 

Project Overview and Goals 

The Regional Open Space Strategy (ROSS) is a collaborative effort led by landscape architects and planners to integrate and elevate the many activities underway to conserve and enhance the ecological, economic, and cultural vitality of the Central Puget Sound region. With a collective, integrated vision and coordinated system, planners and decision-makers will be able to consider actions in light of their regional significance and priority, potentially drawing greater investment to the region’s infrastructure, and more efficiently use available resources. Accounting for the full values that open spaces yield will recognize multi-benefit potential and inform landscape planning and investment.

To achieve this, the ROSS adopted four primary goals:
Envision a robust, connected regional open space system and identify priority projects;
Improve regional coordination;
Expand and apply analytical tools to measure and convey open space value; and
Cultivate a regional advocacy and governance community, including private, non-profit and governmental stakeholders.

For the past five years, the ROSS has advanced an all-embracing definition of “open space,” incorporating recreational spaces and trails, healthy ecosystems, working landscapes such as farms and forests, and community parks and open space amenities. The project began with development of a “Preliminary Comprehensive Strategy,” which engaged over 100 stakeholder representatives to identify the desired qualities of a regional green infrastructure system and to create a process roadmap for establishing such a system. That plan recommended working with communities at the scale of individual river watersheds contributing to Puget Sound, while simultaneously developing tools and processes to measure and emphasize regional connections and to merge visions and prioritized actions into a regional whole. The Preliminary Strategy called for an integrated spatial vision that optimizes open space benefits, applying landscape ecology and ecosystem services concepts to guide decision-making and promote open space conservation values, from urban to rural to wild. 

Valuing the Region’s Landscapes to Address Regional Challenges 

The ROSS team and its partners defined five regional challenges for which open space could contribute solutions: biodiversity conservation; climate change; social equity; health; and economic vibrancy. We convened expert task forces to develop “green” papers documenting the role of open space in addressing each of these regional challenges, posted on the project’s website. The team identified sixteen categories of “open space services,” adapted from the traditional ecosystem services rubric, to provide a valuation format that better incorporates social and cultural benefits. Using this framework, staff worked with economists to quantify the economic value of the 4-county region’s existing open spaces. The model indicates the contribution of open spaces to the economy of between $11- $25 billion annually, and with an asset value of approximately $825 billion. The team and partners created a prototype of an interactive GIS web tool to model and convey the open space services delivered by the region’s landscapes, including their relevance to addressing the five regional challenges; the full tool buildout is currently in process and is expected to be freely available in the fall, to inform open space conservation and enhancement scenarios and decision-making. 

Watershed Open Space Strategies 

Working with local governmental and advocacy groups, the ROSS team produced three Watershed Open Space Strategies (WOSSes) to identify targeted local strategies, projects and actions that would inform development of the overarching Regional Strategy. Prioritized projects were those that would require outside assistance and collaboration, would contribute most to the development and function of the inter-watershed, regional open space system, and which would provide maximum open space values. While each of the three watershed studies employed different processes that reflected the unique needs and capabilities of the different watersheds, each engaged local advisors and advocates in the analysis and planning process through a series of interactive meetings and workshops. 

The first, the Puyallup-White Watershed WOSS, worked with established local “communities of interest” to identify regional trail gaps, threatened farmlands, areas of regular flooding, open space “deserts” near urban populations, and unprotected areas of highest ecological integrity. Three major integrated ideas emerged: a “Green Y” target area to capture multiple benefits of farmland preservation, trail connections, floodplain expansion and open space provision for underserved communities, currently contributing an estimated $7M to the regional economy annually in agricultural products; preservation of the White River Corridor focusing on riparian enhancement; and a “Greater Rainier Coalition” to promote conservation and expand recreation-related economic activities in the communities surrounding Mount Rainier. 

For the highly populous Green-Duwamish Watershed Strategy, we employed an intensive expert-engagement process of interviews, focus groups and open houses in a “Listening” phase to establish a thorough baseline of existing conditions, initiatives and plans. The project’s Watershed Advisory Group identified priority foci for the watershed strategy as social equity, a comprehensive approach to connected open space, and integration of stormwater planning. For the Snohomish WOSS, our staff mapped extensive GIS data and identified ecosystem service “hot spots” to inform subsequent planning. We then worked with county, state, municipal and non-profit planners to create and evaluate spatial scenarios, to understand the multiple benefits of potential collaborative actions and proposals.

Developing Regional Spatial Strategies 

The ROSS team applied outcomes from the Watershed Strategies, GIS data, expert and advocate engagement, and measurement of open space values to identify the most critical landscapes to conserve, restore, and provide public access in the four-county region. The preliminary regional spatial vision identifies targeted priority action areas, addressing urban and rural agricultural lands and forests; needed trail connections; added recreation and community open space; habitat protection and restoration; and flood hazard and stormwater impact reduction. Using digital flyover software, we are incorporating three-dimensional video flythrough representation of the interconnected spatial priorities in a video that presents the key components of the Preliminary Regional Spatial Strategy.

Governance, Funding and Implementation 

Continued development and implementation of the ROSS will be advanced by exploring the prospect of tasking the quasi-governmental agency for the 4-county area, the Puget Sound Regional Council, with open space planning, and by formalizing a convening coalition of nonprofit, government, and businesses to continue advocacy and communication, refine planning, attract and administer funding, and cultivate a collaborative regional community to protect, enhance and steward the region’s landscapes. The ROSS compendium of multi-scalar analysis and planning products and ecosystem/open space service studies and tools will support both of these parallel processes. By expanding the role of landscape architecture, the ROSS project has established a solid foundation and fostered an alliance between a broad spectrum of agencies and organizations that, together, can sustainably achieve multi-dimensional, integrated priorities for regional open space protection and enhancement. 

"The ROSS represents a real opportunity to develop a national model for doing conservation right at the regional scale” – Ron Sims, former Deputy Director of H.U.D.

PROJECT CREDITS

UW Green Futures Lab:
Nancy Rottle, FASLA, Director, UW Green Futures Lab, ROSS Co-Director
John Owen, Partner, Makers Architecture, ROSS Co-Director
Ikuno Masterson, Senior Planner
Jeffrey Raker, Senior Planner
Ginger Daniel, Planner
Heidi Kandathil, Planner
Jonathan Childers, Planner
Janet Lee, Associate ASLA, Associate Planner
Sarah Titcomb, Associate Planner
VeraEve Giampietro, Associate ASLA, Associate Planner

Partners:
Steve Whitney, Bullitt Foundation
Tracy Stanton, Planning Consultant
Abigail Hook, Hook-Knauer Environmental Consultants
Matt Chadsey, Earth Economics
Zac Christin, Earth Economics
National Park Service, Rivers and Trails Conservation Assistance Program
Trust for Public Land
Resource Media
U.S.D.A. Forest Service
Puget Sound Regional Council
Makers Architecture

Funders:
The Bullitt Foundation
The Russell Family Foundation
King County Department of Parks and Natural Resources

Additional Contributors:
Executive and Technical Advisory Committee Members
Watershed Advisory Groups
UW Student Researchers and GIS Experts
“Green Paper” Authors

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